To capture a shot of a meteor you need a cloudless, moonless sky, a tripod-mounted camera, a remote shutter release, an exposure long enough to see meteor trails but not so long as to capture star trails, and a glass or two of wine.
This photo was taken during the Perseid meteor shower, which is visible in North America from mid July to mid August. The view is looking south over the Juan de Fuca Strait to the town of Port Angeles, Washington, the bright light source in the distance. Shot with a Nikon D300, 11 mm focal length, f/2.8, 33 sec, and long-exposure noise reduction (LENR). LENR works by following each exposure with a second exposure of the same length but with shutter closed. The second exposure is then subtracted from the first to remove noise. This, of course, doubles the time to take the shot.