The Mémorial des Martyrs de la Déportation honours the 200,000 people deported from Vichy France to the Nazi concentration camps during World War II. It is below ground and appropriately brutalist in design. The memorial is entered via a narrow staircase hemmed in by cement, then through two closely-spaced blocks of cement. Finally one arrives at a set of iron bars behind which is a long, dark passage featuring two opposing walls lined with 200,000 glass crystals with light shining through. The crystals symbolize each of the deportees who died in the concentration camps. The memorial, located near Notre Dame on Île de la Cité, was dedicated by Charles de Gaulle in 1962.